Smps ppt

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Smps ppt

Designing of watt DC power supply. An efficient design, smaller size and less weight. SMPS stands for switch mode power supply.

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SMPS uses aswitching circuitryto convert electric power efficiently. The boost converter is working on the continuous conduction mode. Continuous conduction mode of a boost converter assumes two states for each switching cycle.

In the On-state, the switch S is closed, resulting in an increase in the inductor current. When the switch is opened, current will be reduced as the impedance is higher. This topology isolates the input from the output through a transformer. We will be using ferrite core transformer because it operates on high frequency. The capacitor at the input gets chargeresulting in operation of Q1 and Q4.

In the discharge of the capacitor or in the next half cycle Q2 and Q3 will be in on state. This results in producing a high frequency square wave AC. The output is fed to an isolation transformer. We are using a high frequency switching power transformer. We will be operating on 1. We are using a Diode bridge rectifier for rectification. Rectifiers are Power diodes For, filteration we have used a capacitor.

Pulse-width modulation PWMorpulse-duration modulation PDMis amodulationtechnique that controls the width of the pulse based on modulator signal information. We are using the PWM chip for the generation of switching frequency. We have used a Opto-Coupler in the feedback circuitry. Opto-Coupler is use for protection purposes.

smps ppt

It provides isolation between the primary and secondary sides. Portable charger. LED lighting.Power supply is an electronic circuit that is used for providing the electrical power to appliances or loads such as computers, machines, and so on. These electrical and electronic loads require various forms of power at different ranges and with different characteristics.

So, for this reason the power is converted into the required forms with desired qualities by using some power electronic converters or power converters. Electrical and electronic loads work with various forms of power supplies, such as AC power supply, AC- to-DC power supply, High-voltage power supply, Programmable power supply, Uninterruptable power supply and Switch-mode power supply.

The electronic power supply integrated with the switching regulator for converting the electrical power efficiently from one form to another form with desired characteristics is called as Switch-mode power supply.

Similar to other power supplies, switch-mode power supply is a complicated circuit that supplies power from a source to loads. There are different types of topologies for SMPS, among those, a few are as follows. The working of a few types of switch-mode power supply topologies is as follows:. And then it is fed to a step-down transformer which is comparable to the weight and size characteristics of a transformer unit of 50Hz.

The output of the step-down transformer is further fed into the rectifier. This filtered and rectified output DC power is used as a source for loads, and a sample of this output power is used as a feedback for controlling the output voltage.

With this feedback voltage, the ON time of the oscillator is controlled, and a closed-loop regulator is formed. As shown in the circuit above, the switch is driven by the PWM oscillator, such that the power fed to the step-down transformer is controlled indirectly, and hence, the output is controlled by the PWM, as this pulse width signal and the output voltage are inversely proportional to each other. It is converted into DC by rectification process using a rectifier and filter.

This unregulated DC voltage is fed to the large-filter capacitor or PFC Power Factor Correction circuits for correction of power factor as it is affected.

This is because around voltage peaks, the rectifier draws short current pulses having significantly high-frequency energy which affects the power factor to reduce. So, the combination of the rectifier and filter, shown in the block diagram is used for converting the AC into DC and switching is done by using a power MOSFET amplifier with which very high gain can be achieved.

This AC voltage is again fed to the output transformer shown in the figure to step down or step up the voltage levels. Then, the output of this transformer is rectified and smoothed by using the output rectifier and filter. A feedback circuit is used to control the output voltage by comparing it with the reference voltage. Hence, it is frequently used for low-power applications. The isolation of voltage can be achieved by using a transformer. The switch operation can be controlled by using a PWM control while implementing a practical fly-back converter.

Fly-back transformer exhibits different characteristics compared to general transformer. The two windings of the fly-back transformer act as magnetically coupled inductors. The output of this transformer is passed through a diode and a capacitor for rectification and filtering. As shown in the figure, the voltage across this filter capacitor is taken as the output voltage of the SMPS. It can be called as a DC to DC buck converter, along with a transformer used for isolation and scaling.

In addition to the diode D1 and capacitor C, a diode D2 and an inductor L are connected at the output end. If switch S gets switched ON, then the input is given to the primary winding of the transformer, and hence, a scaled voltage is generated at the secondary winding of the transformer.

Thus, the diode D1 gets forward biased and scaled voltage is passed through the low-pass filter preceding the load.A switched-mode power supply SMPS is an electronic circuit that converts power using switching devices that are turned on and off at high frequencies, and storage components such as inductors or capacitors to supply power when the switching device is in its non-conduction state.

Switching power supplies have high efficiency and are widely used in a variety of electronic equipment, including computers and other sensitive equipment requiring stable and efficient power supply. A switched-mode power supply is also known as a switch-mode power supply or switching-mode power supply.

Switched-mode power supplies are classified according to the type of input and output voltages. The four major categories are:. The high-frequency voltage pulses from the inverter are fed to the transformer primary winding, and the secondary AC output is rectified and smoothed to produce the required DC voltages.

A feedback circuit monitors the output voltage and instructs the control circuit to adjust the duty cycle to maintain the output at the desired level. There are different circuit configurations known as topologies, each having unique characteristics, advantages and modes of operation, which determines how the input power is transferred to the output. Most of the commonly used topologies such as flyback, push-pull, half bridge and full bridge, consist of a transformer to provide isolation, voltage scaling, and multiple output voltages.

The non-isolated configurations do not have a transformer and the power conversion is provided by the inductive energy transfer. Switched-mode power supplies are used to power a wide variety of equipment such as computers, sensitive electronics, battery-operated devices and other equipment requiring high efficiency.

Toggle navigation Menu. Home Dictionary Tags Hardware. Share this:. Related Terms. Related Articles. What is the difference between little endian and big endian data formats? How can a hard drive be erased securely? What is the difference between vMotion, VM migration and live migration? More of your questions answered by our Experts. Related Tags. Hardware Electronics. Misspellings: Switched Mode Power Supply. Machine Learning and Why It Matters:.

Latest Articles. How Cryptomining Malware is Dominating Cybersecurity.The topics discussed till now represent different sections of power supply unit. All these sections together make the Linear Power Supply.

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This is the conventional method of obtaining DC out of the input AC supply. The Linear Power Supply LPS is the regulated power supply which dissipates much heat in the series resistor to regulate the output voltage which has low ripple and low noise. This LPS has many applications. A linear power supply requires larger semiconductor devices to regulate the output voltage and generates more heat resulting in lower energy efficiency.

Linear power supplies have transient response times up to times faster than the others, which is very important in certain specialized areas. We have already gone through different parts of a Linear Power supply.

The block diagram of a Linear Power Supply is as shown in the following figure. In spite of the above disadvantages, Linear Power Supplies are widely used in low-noise amplifiers, test equipment, control circuits. In addition, they are also used in data acquisition and signal processing. All the power supply systems that needs simple regulation and where efficiency is not a concern, the LPS circuits are used.

As the electrical noise is lower, the LPS is used in powering sensitive analog circuitry. The disadvantages of LPS such as lower efficiency, the need for large value of capacitors to reduce ripples and heavy and costly transformers etc.

The AC input supply signal 50 Hz is given directly to the rectifier and filter circuit combination without using any transformer. This output will have many variations and the capacitance value of the capacitor should be higher to handle the input fluctuations.

This unregulated dc is given to the central switching section of SMPS. A fast switching device such as a Power transistor or a MOSFET is employed in this section, which switches ON and OFF according to the variations and this output is given to the primary of the transformer present in this section. The transformer used here are much smaller and lighter ones unlike the ones used for 60 Hz supply.

These are much efficient and hence the power conversion ratio is higher. The output signal from the switching section is again rectified and filtered, to get the required DC voltage.

Smps. PowerPoint PPT Presentations

This is a regulated output voltage which is then given to the control circuit, which is a feedback circuit. The final output is obtained after considering the feedback signal. This unit is the feedback circuit which has many sections. Let us have a clear understanding about this from The following figure. The above figure explains the inner parts of a control unit. The output sensor senses the signal and joins it to the control unit.

The signal is isolated from the other section so that any sudden spikes should not affect the circuitry. A reference voltage is given as one input along with the signal to the error amplifier which is a comparator that compares the signal with the required signal level. By controlling the chopping frequency the final voltage level is maintained. This is controlled by comparing the inputs given to the error amplifier, whose output helps to decide whether to increase or decrease the chopping frequency.

We can get a better idea on the complete functioning of SMPS by having a look at the following figure. The SMPS is mostly used where switching of voltages is not at all a problem and where efficiency of the system really matters.

There are few points which are to be noted regarding SMPS. They are. The efficiency of SMPS is high because, instead of dissipating excess power as heat, it continuously switches its input to control the output. There are many applications of SMPS.

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They are used in the motherboard of computers, mobile phone chargers, HVDC measurements, battery chargers, central power distribution, motor vehicles, consumer electronics, laptops, security systems, space stations, etc.The power supply circuit in any electrical and electronic circuit plays a vital role to give the power to the entire circuit.

The different circuits require various kinds of power at different ranges and characteristics. So, the power is changed into the required form by adopting different power converters. Fundamentally, different types of circuits work with various kinds of power supplies such as SMPS.

The term SMPS is defined as when the power supply is involved with the switching regulator to change the electrical power from one form to another form with required characteristics is called SMPS.

SMPS is a complex circuit such as other power supplies, it provides the supply from a source to the loads. SMPS is very important for different appliances which consume power and also for making electronic projects.

A switching regulator does the regulation in the switch mode power supply. The voltage on the smoothing capacitor controls the time when the series element is switched. The constant switching of the capacitor keeps the voltage at the necessary level. The voltage which is resolved is next used to the PFC power factor correction pre-regulator followed by the downstream DC to DC converter.

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In general, they are not consistent and are left up to the manufacturer. And like each of those devices, it has its own benefits and drawbacks. The main power received from the AC main is resolved and filtered as high voltage DC. Then, it is changing at an enormous rate of speed and fed to the main side of the step-down transformer. This transformer is only a segment of the size of an equivalent 50 Hz unit, thus releasing the size and weight problems.

In a forward converter, the choke transmits the current when the transistor is leading as well as when it is not. The diode transmits the current through the OFF period of the transistor. Thus, the flow of current into the load during both the periods. In this converter, the magnetic field of the inductor supplies the energy throughout the ON period of the switch.

The duty cycle controls the output voltage. This is the most simple converter based on the principle of the flyback. The induced voltage in the secondary winding and the feedback winding make the fastest recovery rectifier reverse biased and hold the conducting transistor ON.The switching regulator acts as a continuously variable power converter and hence its efficiency is negligibly affected by the voltage difference.

In a SMPS, the active device that provides regulation is always operated in cut-off or in saturation mode. The input D. Here the size of the ferrite core reduces inversely with the frequency.

The lower limit is around 5 kHz for silent operation and an upper limit of 50 kHz to limit the losses in the choke and in active switching elements.

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The transformed wave form is rectified and filtered. A sample of the output voltage is used as the feedback signal for the drive circuit for the switching transistor to achieve regulation. The control element usually consists of a transistor switch, an inductor, and a diode. For each switch ON, energy is pumped into the magnetic field associated with the inductor which is a transformer winding in practice.

This energy is then released to the load at the desired voltage level. By varying the duty cycle or frequency of switching, we can vary the stored energy in each cycle and thus control the output voltage. Higher efficiency is obtained since only the energy required is pumped to maintain the load current hence no power dissipation.

The major feature of SMPS is the elimination of physically massive power transformers and other power line magnetic.

AC/DC SMPS Basics (1)

The net result is smaller, lighter package and reduced manufacturing cost, reducing primarily from the elimination of the 50 Hz components. The basic concept of switching regulator in a simple form is shown in this figure below.

Types of SMPS:. The block diagram of D. Here, the primary power received from AC main is rectified and filtered as high voltage DC.

Electronic Circuits - SMPS

It is then switched at a huge rate of speed approximately 15 kHz to 50 kHz and fed to the primary side of the step-down transformer. The step-down transformer is only a fraction of the size of a comparable 50 Hz unit thus reliving the size and weight problems. The output at the secondary side of the transformer is rectified and filtered. Then it is sent to the output of the power supply. A sample of this output is sent back to the switch to control the output voltage. The average value of the repetitive pulse waveform depends on the area under the waveform.

As load increases, output voltage tends to fall.

What is Switching Mode Power Supply (SMPS) And its Application?

The power switch which feeds the primary of the step-down transformer is driven by the PWM oscillator. As the duty cycle decreases the power transmitted is less hence low power dissipation. The Pulse Width signal given to the switch is inversely proportional to the output voltage. The width or the ON time of the oscillator is controlled by the voltage feedback from the secondary of the rectifier output and forms a closed loop regulator.

In a forward converter the choke carries both current both when the transistor is conducting as well as it is not. The diode carries the current during the OFF period of the transistor. Therefore, energy flows into the load during both the periods. The output voltage V o can only be less than V s in this circuit.Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Switch mode Power Supply.

Description: A switched-mode power supply switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched power supply, SMPS, or switcher is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently. Provided by: keenoceanhk. Latest Highest Rated. The different types of power supplies include Battery DC power supply AC power supply 3 Switched Mode Power Supply An electrical power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently.

Lower weight 2. Smaller size 3. Higher efficiency 4. Complexity of the circuit 5 1. Output transformer If the output required is to be isolated from input, the inverted AC is used to draw the primary windings of a high frequency transformer. This converts the voltage up or down to the required output level on its secondary winding.

smps ppt

Machine tool industries 2. Security Systems Closed circuit cameras 3. Support supplies with PLCs 4. Personal Computers 8 Conclusion The most common SMPS topologies flyback, push-pull, half bridge and full bridge converters have been outlined. Each has its own particular operating characteristics and advantages, which makes it suitable to particular applications.

Some of the most common applications of SMPS have been discussed. Keen Ocean Industrial Ltd. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use. You can use PowerShow. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free.

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smps ppt

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